Following are the principal sources we used to prepare these pages, with updated information added as it becomes available.
Reports, Fact Sheets, & Scientific Studies
- Synthetic Turf – Industry’s Claims Versus the Science – A Careful Analysis Of Studies That Industry Uses to Justify Safety Claims [Environment & Human Health, North Haven CT]
- Athletic Playing Fields and Artificial Turf: Considerations for Municipalities and Institutions [PDF]. Toxics Use Reduction Institute at University of Massachusetts–Lowell (June 2016).
- David R. Brown. Artificial Turf. Environment & Human Health (2007).
- C. Frank Williams and Gilbert E. Pulley. Synthetic Turf Heat Studies. Brigham Young University (2002)
- ‘Be Aware of Artificial Turf Hazards’ fact sheet (NJ Work Environment Council)
- ‘What to Know About Artificial Turf Fields’ fact sheet (Mt. Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Center, 2011)
- Hefa Cheng, Yuanan Hu, and Martin Reinhard. Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf. Environmental Science & Technology (2013).
- Exposure to rubber nanoparticles could lead to serious health issues | Turf & Recreation news [added Dec 2015]
- EPA Says Harm Not Proven, Calls for More-Comprehensive Studies [added Dec 2015]
- Grass not cheaper on the artificial side | Clay Center Dispatch (8 September 2014)
- University of Missouri: Synthetic turfgrass costs far exceed natural grass playing fields [added Dec 2015]
- Yale analysis of crumb rubber infill and playground mulch shows dozens of carcinogens (June 2015) [added Dec 2015]
- 12 reasons why synthetic turf fields pose a health risk [EHHI]
News & Media Coverage
- How the Synthetic Turf Industry Is Bypassing Children’s Safety – Nancy Alderman of Environment & Human Health recaps current state of knowledge on this critical health issue for children. (The Hill, 26 June 2017)
- Mom of Goalie Who Died of Cancer Wants Answers on Artificial Turf [added Dec 2015]
- Feds Won’t Say If Artificial Turf on Your Kid’s Soccer Field Is Safe [added Dec 2015]
- ESPN: Turf Wars: How Safe Are The Fields Where We Play? [added Dec 2015]
- Senators Call for ‘Independent’ Crumb Rubber Turf Study [added Dec 2015]
- Congress Asks EPA If Crumb Rubber Turf Is Safe for Young Athletes [added Dec 2015]
- ‘How Safe Is the Artificial Turf Your Child Plays On?’ (NBC News, 8 October 2014)
- Phyllis Swebilius. More studies needed on artificial turf fields, EPA says. New Haven Register (25 December 2013).
- ‘Are artificial turf fields carcinogenic?‘ (Saratoga Falcon | Saratoga HS, November 2013)
- ‘Toxicologist unsurprised by artificial turf-cancer report’ (Soccer Wire, 14 November 2014)
- Patrick Lester. Artificial turf debate: Is it safe for children? The Morning Call (2014).
- Natural Grass and Artificial Turf: Separating Myths and Facts (Turfgrass Resource Center)
[For additional detail, see resources listed by the NY Department of Health.]
- What Is Synthetic Turf?
- What Do Athletes Think?
- Health & Safety Concerns
- Turf Burns – First Aid & Treatment
- Antibiotic-Resistant Infections – MRSA
- Environmental Pros & Cons
- Cost – Natural Turf v. Synthetic
- Play It Safe – Recommendations for Athletes, Parents, & Institutions
- Sources & Links for More Information
- Open Letter to Anyone Considering Synthetic Turf
These pages on Synthetic Turf are based on research and analysis completed in May 2015 by Kendall Garden [Lehigh ’16] and Peter Crownfield. Contact us by email
[updated January 2016]