Across the nation, cities are responding to climate change by developing and implementing local policies and initiatives. In particular, municipalities have created climate action plans to demonstrate their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and protect their communities from the results of climate change. These plans contain mitigation strategies to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adaptation strategies to address the negative impacts from climate change (such as increased flooding). Cities across the country have developed their own comprehensive climate action plans (CAP). Municipalities in the Lehigh Valley already have taken some steps in this direction. For instance, Bethlehem and Easton have both signed on to the Global Covenant of Mayors. The City of Easton adopted GHG reduction targets and created a Climate Vulnerability Assessment, and in 2017 the City of Bethlehem committed to creating a climate action plan. This is a promising start, but municipalities need to prioritize climate action. We think Lehigh Valley municipalities also should follow the example of many cities throughout the country that have adopted climate emergency declarations to help focus attention to the climate crisis among municipal employees, businesses, and residents.
As outlined by the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, “Municipal officials have the responsibility for first line public safety efforts… These functions should address all hazards that could occur.” Climate change is one of these hazards, and the local government has a responsibility to act.
We prepared this document to make developing a comprehensive climate action plan easier: we identify potential problems, outline examples of possible actions, and recommend additional resources. All of the presented actions are merely suggestions, but many of them have been developed and successfully implemented by others. To be successful, a comprehensive climate action plan requires research, community input, funding, and a structured timeline; this document, and the research laid out in it, should prove helpful for municipalities. It is a tool to raise awareness, move the conversation forward, and motivate action.
What is Climate Change?
The term “climate change” has been making global headlines recently as both a controversial debate topic and as the culprit for increasingly frequent and devastating natural disasters. It has become a prevailing issue in the global mindset, but what exactly is it? Put simply, climate change is one result of global warming. Greenhouse gases (GHG) trap heat, preventing it from being radiated into space, thereby warming the atmosphere. While this greenhouse effect is essential for life to exist on Earth, GHG levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate, causing excessive warming. A wide variety of human activities contribute to this exponential increase, including driving, generating electricity, heating, cooling, agriculture, flying, and industry. Some of the most prevalent greenhouse gases are:
- Carbon dioxide (CO2).
Primary sources: combustion and rotting organic matter.
- Methane (CH4), with a short-term global warming potential (GWP) about 90 times greater than CO2.
Primary sources: fossil fuel combustion, leakage from natural gas lines and compressor stations.
- Refrigerants, with GWP ranging from about 50–15,000 times greater than CO2.
Primary sources: leakage and maintenance of refrigeration equipment and cooling systems.
- Nitrous oxides (primarily N2O), with GWP about 300 times greater than CO2.
Primary sources: synthetic fertilizers that are widely used in agriculture and landscaping.
The following graphs show atmospheric CO2 concentrations collected from Antarctic ice cores and direct measurements from Mauna Loa Observatory (1958-present). The graphs clearly show that CO2 levels are far higher than they have been in the past 800,000 years, with a steep increase in the last century resulting from fossil fuel use for industry, vehicles, and electricity generation. The increased CO2 levels have caused global surface temperatures to increase, initiating a whole host of other climate threats including more frequent and more extreme weather events, changes in temperatures and precipitation patterns, ocean acidification, sea level rise, and much more.
The negative effects of climate change will continue to disrupt the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide, forcing millions of people to relocate. Now more than ever, it is essential to make serious efforts to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Climate Change in the Lehigh Valley
Pennsylvania is subject to major changes in temperature and climate, and to weather patterns such as increasing intensity and frequency of severe storms. Current projections from the Pennsylvania Climate Impacts Assessment Update say that PA will experience an average warming of 3°C (5.4°F) by the middle of the century, and precipitation is projected to increase by more than 5%.According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which tracks precipitation and temperature rates across the nation from July 2018 to June 2019, PA has experienced its “record wettest year” and temperatures “much above average” during this time period (See Figures 1 & 2).
It is clear that Pennsylvania is already starting to experience the effects of climate change and will continue to do so. The negative impacts will not occur evenly throughout the state, and the Lehigh Valley is the fastest warming region in Pennsylvania, a 1.1°C (2°F) increase in average temperature from 1989–2017.The Morning Call reported that a study in Nature Communications predicts that in 60 years Allentown’s climate will be similar to that of present day Arkansas: wetter, warmer winters with less snow and more rain, and significantly drier summers — except for extreme weather events. These changes will affect public health, infrastructure, agriculture, and the economy. If the Lehigh Valley carries on with a ‘business as usual’ attitude, we’ll continue to feel ever-more-serious consequences. Global warming and climate change pose a variety of threats to local climate, storm patterns, and ultimately the livelihoods of the three-quarters of a million people who call the Lehigh Valley their home.
Overview of Climate Action Planning
Climate action plans (CAP) outline specific strategies and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the negative effects of climate change. Creating a comprehensive climate action plan helps a municipality find the most effective ways to reduce their carbon footprint, protect residents, maintain accountability, keep them on target, and raise awareness throughout communities.
The Global Covenant of Mayors developed a framework for climate action planning; it first requires a municipality to make a commitment to take action and to conduct a baseline greenhouse gas inventory against which to compare future measurements. Building on this, the municipality completes risk and vulnerability assessments to determine immediate and future threats due to climate change. After determining their current carbon footprint and the risks, the municipality spells out specific reduction goals or targets. With this work completed, the next step is to draft and formally adopt a climate action plan that includes the baseline measurements, risks and vulnerabilities, and the municipality’s goals — but the bulk of a CAP is dedicated to how they plan to achieve those goals. Municipalities need to outline broad strategies and specific actions that focus on both mitigation and adaption, such as those shown in Part Two.
A multifaceted focus on community engagement throughout the planning process is extremely helpful in two main ways: learning what the community values and building connections — among residents, local businesses and organizations, and local government. Listening to the opinions and needs and ideas of all stakeholders can supply meaningful input. Community leaders and experts who are already involved in organizations such as local environmental groups, the civil engineering industry, or local colleges and universities can provide valuable insight as well. A strong outreach effort is needed to ensure all segments of the public are represented and is essential for climate justice. Implementing the plan will impact people in their daily lives, and a public that is not only aware of these changes but was also involved in and informed about the planning and decision making process will be more supportive of the initiatives., This also builds resilience in the community through engagement and trust between community members and local officials. One powerful way to raise awareness and motivate action is to pass a climate emergency declaration, as many cities have already done. (See Part Two.)
Greenhouse Gas Inventories
To best understand and analyze their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, municipalities need to do regular GHG inventories and to use consistent data so they can compare progress over time. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol classifies sources of GHG emissions into three scopes:
Scope 1 includes direct emissions released within the reporting municipality, including mobile sources owned or operated within the municipality. This includes combustion of fuel to heat buildings or power vehicles, but it also includes things that may be overlooked, such as releases of refrigerants, and use of synthetic fertilizers.
Scope 2 includes indirect emissions from electricity, heat, cooling, and steam purchased and used in the municipality, such as electricity purchased from a utility company. Scopes 1 and 2 are directly related to the actions of the municipality and make up the core reporting.
Scope 3 deals with indirect GHG emissions, such as ‘upstream emissions’ from the production or transportation of products that come from outside the municipality.
Although these protocols simplify GHG reporting, some emissions are more difficult than others to categorize and track. Measuring emissions from transportation, including planes and trains, is complex as they often originate elsewhere and travel through several municipalities. As a result, their emissions are frequently missed. Refrigerant leaks from homes and businesses also can be difficult to measure and track.
Methane emissions from natural gas production and distribution — including local gas mains —are a major factor, because methane’s global warming power is far greater than CO2. In addition, emissions from the processes of extraction, production, transmission, and distribution of natural gas are roughly equal to those from combustion—meaning the climate impact of natural gas use is doubled when we consider indirect emissions.
GHG inventories provide benchmarks so municipalities can track emission trends and monitor progress over time, allowing comparison to accepted standards and to comparable situations. It can help identify the sectors (such as industry, residential, or transportation) that have been successful in reducing GHG emissions and those that need the most improvement. Local governments can encourage benchmarking among businesses or institutions to promote GHG reduction and increase public awareness. In order for these comparisons to be meaningful, however, measurements and calculations must use the same methods each time.
To evaluate changes, it is important to consider not only emissions but carbon intensity, the amount of GHG generated for a given population, area, or production output. For example, if an energy-efficient company draws business away from less-efficient companies, the growing company’s emissions increase, but total emissions are lower. Likewise, suburban areas generally have a much higher carbon intensity than cities, where people generally live closer to shops, jobs, food, and other services; if more people move to the city, the city’s emissions increase but total GHG emissions are lower.
Each greenhouse gas has a unique Global Warming Potential (GWP), a measure of how much heat it traps and how long it remains in the atmosphere. GWPs are usually evaluated on a standard 100-year period to balance the long- and short-term impacts and to allow for consistent comparisons. It is important to understand both long- and short-term impacts.
Methane, for example, is a strong GHG but only lasts about 10 years, while some GHGs remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. If we look only at a 100-year time frame, it tends to minimize intense short-term heating effects from GHG such as methane. One option is to use a 20-year timeframe to analyze changes, recognizing that this reduces the visibility of GHG that persist for longer periods. Long-term climate stabilization requires looking at both long- and short-term GWP.
Lehigh Valley Climate Action Plan
In addition to the efforts underway in Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton, collaborating on a Valley-wide plan and pooling resources could benefit the entire region. There are 62 municipalities in the Lehigh Valley, each with varying access to funding, resources, and time needed to create effective climate action plans. Valley-wide planning could streamline the planning process and simplify collection of GHG emissions data. When completing a greenhouse gas inventory, for example, it would be more efficient to ask for Valley-wide data broken down by county and municipality than for each municipality to request their data separately. Additionally, some of the largest emitters, like vehicles on highways, industries, and warehouses, exist in between and across municipalities.,
Climate Change Mitigation Strategies
Climate change is a global problem that might seem nearly impossible to solve through local and individual action. While big global problems can be daunting, a “Think globally, act locally” mindset helps people see that making changes in the local community can have a real impact. The good news is that communities can do a lot at the local level to reduce emissions and mitigate climate change.
We identified five broad sectors for action: Energy, Transportation, Land Use, Community Engagement & Education, and Resource & Waste Management. Within these categories, there are many specific actions that a municipality can take to reduce emissions. Following are brief descriptions of the five sectors — but it is important to note that these sectors are highly interdependent:
Energy – Energy for electricity and heating account for about 25% of global GHG emissions, so finding ways to reduce demand is essential. Municipalities can switch to renewable energy sources and encourage residents to do the same; they also can make sure new buildings and major renovations produce enough energy to meet their own needs, reducing demand through energy-efficient design, producing renewable energy on site. and eliminating fossil fuel use.
Transportation – This sector accounts for about 14% of global emissions, and air travel is one of the most destructive. Implementing innovative ideas would allow more people to have access to alternative methods of transportation.
Land Use – Land development practices have a substantial impact on GHG emissions. For example, compact, mixed-use development allows residents to travel shorter distances between where they live, work, shop, and carry out other activities. In addition, conventional agriculture emits far more GHG than organic agriculture, which actually sequesters carbon into the soil. (24% of total global GHG emissions are due to agriculture and forestry.) For some municipalities in the Lehigh Valley, agriculture is a vital part of the economy which makes it very important to educate farmers on sustainable solutions and provide incentives to encourage them to convert to organic growing.
Community Engagement & Education – A variety of approaches — such as community events, declaring a climate emergency, integrating sustainability in schools, and town hall meetings — can help raise public awareness, as can strong collaboration with businesses and institutions.
Resource & Waste Management – It is projected that climate shifts will reduce the availability of resources such as water and food. Preservation and conservation are important for protecting resources for the future. In addition, waste management can help keep waterways, ecosystems, and green spaces clean and safe.
Another major factor in the climate crisis is a widespread dependence on plastic. It has become part of our daily lives in more ways than we realize, and its production is a major contributor to GHG emissions and pollution. We are used to thinking of plastic as creating environmental problems, but nearly all plastics are derived from fossil fuels and require an energy-intensive manufacturing process. Additionally, disposal of used plastic creates new emission, health, and land-use challenges. An end to ‘business as usual’ continuation of the production and consumption of single-use and other types of plastic is an essential part of mitigating climate change.
Plastic is only one of many areas where we need to review all ‘business as usual’ practices and eliminate those that are making the climate crisis worse each day we continue them. This is not just a matter of individuals changing their thinking and habits: it requires concerted action by businesses, government, and institutions as well; it requires systemic change.
Many actions that reduce GHG emissions also generate positive benefits in different aspects of society. For example, green roofs not only help to reduce GHG emissions but also improve air quality and reduce the heat island effect, where buildings and pavement in cities retain heat; reducing motor vehicle travel also reduces local air pollution and improves health. Following is a key that defines and identifies the different co-benefits that relate to specific actions. Although they benefit from actions that mitigate climate change, each of these areas is also important in its own right.
Actions that reduce costs for the municipality, businesses, or individuals. Some savings often include, but are not limited to, energy, labor, and transportation.
Actions with the potential to create more jobs. It presents the opportunity for a new market to be developed or for existing market to grow. It has the potential to create sustainable economic growth. Through job creation, more opportunities are made available to members of the community which can help improve their livelihoods.
Actions that mitigate hazards, such as improving relationships and interactions between motorists and pedestrians and bicyclists; this reduces risks of injury and enhances individuals’ feelings of safety as they go about their daily activities—top concerns for many municipalities. Additionally, they help reduce the frequency and severity of future life-threatening disasters associated with climate change.
Actions that increase community engagement and awareness and encourage sustainable action at the community and individual levels. They build a sense of community and aim to create a more trusting and unified place to live and work. These actions may also enhance community culture and character by maintaining and restoring buildings and land of historical significance.
Equity & Accessibility
Actions that can help create a more equitable community where people have fair access to similar opportunities. Implementing these actions can lead to increased awareness and participation among the community as a whole. This can be achieved through education on climate issues and solutions along with increased availability of alternative transportation.
Actions with health benefits. For example, reducing use of carbon-emitting vehicles also encourages individuals to find active modes of transportation such as bicycling, walking, or running. Eating less meat and more organic and plant-based foods has been shown to improve health, in addition to reducing carbon and methane emissions. Ensuring a healthy, clean environment can have overall health benefits to members of the community. For instance, better air quality can decrease health risks, such as asthma.
Actions that reduce pollution and/or works to remediate the effects from pollution. Increased GHG emissions pollute our atmosphere, and excess stormwater runoff pollutes our waterways. Positive side-effects range from improved air and water quality to better public health.
Land and Wildlife
Actions that help preserve land and wildlife in addition to mitigating climate change. Some actions can include preservation of ecosystems, restoration efforts, and/or prevention of habitat destruction. Natural vegetation and wildlife play an important role in providing ecosystem services, which are benefits that humans receive from the ecosystems.
Climate Change Adaptation Strategies
To plan for and cope with upcoming changes, municipalities conduct vulnerability assessments to identify the events most likely to occur and the areas in their community most likely to be affected. Once vulnerabilities are known, the municipality can design adaptation solutions. Strategies to adapt to the changing climate are just as important as those designed to mitigate further damage; both are key elements of municipalities’ responsibility to protect and maintain the health, stability, and safety of the community.
Adaptation strategies for each municipality depend on what particular threats that community faces. However, all plans should consider some key overlapping factors when developing their climate action plans. The areas within the municipality that are most vulnerable should have priority in terms of resource allocation and adaptation strategies. For example, low-income residents who are less likely to have adequate cooling systems will be highly vulnerable to extreme heat events, and should be prioritized as the frequency of these events increases.
Adaptation planning should focus both on immediate threats as well as preventative measures for future events. Being proactive, whether that be by raising roads or building sea walls, will enable a municipality to become more resilient and better able to face future disasters or climate changes. See Part Two for a list of some climate change adaptation strategies that municipalities can implement to reduce the effects of climate change. Here again, a climate emergency declaration can help people realize the importance of joining forces to plan for the coming changes. (See Attachment A: Climate Emergency Declarations)
Climate change is, arguably, the most complex, threatening problem that we face today — and we are running out of time to act. Most everyday actions contribute, at least in part, to greenhouse gas emissions — actions such as driving your car, heating or lighting your home, throwing out your garbage, choosing your food, shopping for clothes, and using technology. Despite the challenges, immediate action is necessary, and collaborations between governments, institutions, industry, individuals, and businesses are making a difference. Cities throughout the country have led by example and their efforts and successes serve as models that other regions such as the Lehigh Valley can follow. While progress has slowed recently in the Valley in terms of climate action, now is the time for that to change.
Municipalities have an opportunity to create climate action plans that will benefit not only local residents, but also play an important role in the larger context. It might be hard to see how one individual or municipality’s efforts to curb the effects of climate change can really make a difference, but smaller actions lead to bigger ones. Individual action can influence peers and beyond, just as one municipality’s actions can influence and drive other towns to take action.
As the third most populous metropolitan area in Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley is in a position to create a plan that not only has a significant impact on GHG reduction, but also inspires others. A climate action plan is a necessary step that allows each municipality to assess vulnerabilities and develop strategies tailored to their community. At the same time Valley-wide planning will streamline and simplify collection of energy emissions data, laying the groundwork for a Valley-wide climate action plan.
Local leaders need to come together and seriously make climate change a priority. Future generations depend on immediate action.
Global Covenant of Mayors – The Global Covenant of Mayors provides resources for reporting emissions data, setting reduction targets, and creating climate mitigation and adaptation plans. Those who commit to the Global Covenant of Mayors receive a timeline for completing GHG inventory, vulnerability assessment, and climate action plan. www.globalcovenantofmayors.org
Greenhouse Gas Protocol – The Greenhouse Gas Protocol, written by the World Resources Institute, provides tools and standards for measuring and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. ghgprotocol.org
Local Governments for Sustainability – ICLEI, originally founded as the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, has a number of resources for local governments working on climate action planning. icleiusa.org
Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] – Among the many resources offered by the EPA, the following may be helpful to climate action planners looking at the co-benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy:
- Quantifying the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: A Guide for State and Local Governments
- Estimating the Health Benefits per Kilowatt-Hour of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – Energy Resources for State, Local, and Tribal Governments
Coalition for Urban Transitions – Climate Emergency, Climate Opportunity
Rocky Mountain Institute – working for a clean, prosperous, and secure low-carbon future. www.rmi.org
Table of Contents
- What is Climate Change?
- Climate Change in the Lehigh Valley
- Overview of Climate Action Planning
- Greenhouse Gas Inventories
- Lehigh Valley Climate Action Plan
- Climate Change Mitigation Strategies
- Climate Change Adaptation Strategies
- Additional Resources
Part Two – Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies
[see PDF for these strategies]
Attachment A: Climate Emergency Declarations
Download complete report with Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies, notes, and information on climate emergency declarations, including a sample declaration.
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